CSWIP Notes – Term and Definitions

The questions and answers based on the document no. WIS5-90516b - CSWIP 3.1 Welding Inspector. These question are separated by each section, it makes easy for reading and learning.

  Note: “Term and Definitions” details in the study book accordance to BS499-1.

Joint: A connection where the individual components, suitably prepared and assembled, are joined by welding or brazing.

Weld: A union of pieces of metal made by welding.

Welding: An operation in which two or more parts are united by means of heat, pressure or both, in such a way that there is continuity in the nature of the metal between these parts.

Homogeneous joint: welded joint in which the weld metal and parent metal have no significant differences in mechanical properties and/or chemical composition.

Heterogeneous joint: welded joints in which the weld metal and parent materials have significant differences in mechanical properties and/or chemical composition.

Dissimilar material joint: welded joint in which the parent materials have significants 

Autogenous weld: A fusion weld made without filler metal by TIG, plasma, electron beam, laser or oxy-fuel gas welding. Any additional filler metal or without filler metal become an essential variable in welding procedure.

Features of the completed weld: learn more WIS5 Section 2.3, don't confuse these definitions.


Other notes are not detailed in book

  • Actual throat thickness = design throat thickness + excessive weld metal thickness of root and cap (other name is reinforcement)
  • HAZ: higher hardness, high strength, low toughness, large changes microstructure. 

Features of the weld preparation: learn more WIS5 Section 2.4.

Welding position: learn more WIS5 Section 2.7.

Accordance to ISO 6947 - Welding and allied processes. Welding positions.

Best way to to understanding and remember as below photo. 

Just draw a squares and identify from PA to PE, PF and PG.

Butt weld: PA, PC, PF, PF, PG

Fillet weld: PB, PD

Accordance to ASME IX may easy understanding and find out at Figure QW-461. Based on joint preparation and member being joined, we have different positions for qualification.

Questions: Does the test coupon of plate set up at 5F position?

G: Groove weld

  • Qualify on plate: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G.
  • Qualify on pipe: 1G, 2G, 5G and 6G

F: fillet weld test

  • Qualify on plate: 1F, 2F, 3F, 4F.
  • Qualify on pipe: 1F, 2F, 4F and 5F.

Question: Compound weld or groove weld?

Double bevel compound of butt and fillet weld.

Don't confuse between US standard with European standards definitions.

Acc. to US standard: double groove weld and fillet weld.

Acc. to EU standard: Double bevel compound of butt and fillet weld.

Questions and answers

Below guidance to answer the questions and cross-reference to study book.

Q_2.1: A fillet weld has a design throat thickness of 8mm. That is the minimum leg length that is required?
Answer: leg length z = 8/0.7 = 11.4mm. It is an easy question with the math formula.
Learn more: WIS5 Section 2.6.

Q_2.2: When visually inspecting a fillet weld, it would normally be “sized” by
Answer: The leg lengths
Note: we can’t measure the DESIGN THROAT THICKNESS that is only reference for visual inspection.

Q_2.3: The strength of a fillet weld is primary controlled by:
Answer: Actual throat thickness.
Learn more: WIS5 Section 2.6.1.

Q_2.4: An effective weld metal volume reduction can be achieved by weld preparation?
Answer: change from V to U, V to double V and also reduce distortion, shrinkage.
Best way to find out by calculating areas of each type preparation.

Q_2.5: Which weld preparations are susceptible to lack of side wall fusion?
Answer: U and J preparation.
Learn more: WIS5 Section 2.4.1- Angle of bevel.

Q_2.6: The increase in bevel angle may result: 
Answer: more deposit weld metal and distortion.

Q_2.7: Effective throat thickness?
Answer: The minimum dimension of throat thickness used for design purposes.

Q_2.8: Compound welds:
Answer: Combinations between two different weld types.
Learn more: WIS5 Section 2.6.3.

Nguyen Duy Bien

Enjoy learning and researching, reading book. Knowledge welding inspection painting inspection.

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