Definitions

QA is a set of activities for ansuring quality in the processes by which products are developed 
QC is the set activities for ensuring quality in products. The activities focus on identifying defects in the actual products produced.

Focus on

QA aims to prevent defects with a focus on the process used to make the product. It is a proactive quality process.
QC aims to identify (and correct) defects in the finished products. Quality control, therefore. Is a reactive process.

Goal

The goal of QA is to improve development and test processes so that defects do not arise when the product is being developed.
The goal of QC is to identify defects after a product is developed and before it’s released.

How

QA Establish a good quality management system and the assessment of its adequacy. Periodic conformance audits of the operations of the system.
QC Finding & eliminating sources of quality problems through tools & equipment so that customer’s equipment are continually met.

What

QA Prevention of quality problems through planned and systematic activities including documentation.
QC The activities of techniques used to achieve and maintain the product quality, process and service.

Responsibility

QA Everyone on the team involved in developing the product is responsible for quality assurance
QC Quality control is usually the responsibility of a specific team that tests the product for defects.

Example

Verification is an example of QA
Validation/software testing is an example of QC

Statistical techniques

Statistical tools & techniques can be applied in both QA/QC when they are applied to processes (process inputs & operational parameters), they are called Statistical process control (SPC); & it becomes the part of QA.
When statistical tools & techniques are applied to finished products (process outputs), they are called as Statistical quality control (SQC) & comes under QC.

As a tool

QA is a managerial tool
QC is corrective tool

Orientation

QA is process oriented
QC is product oriented
Thank you Mr. Abdulkader Alshereef, a Quality Assurance Lead shares this article.
Nguyen Duy Bien
 

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